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Transgenesis by pronuclear injection was the first approach to develop transgenic mice (Gordon and Ruddle, 1981).

It consists in the pronuclear injection of a foreign DNA (transgene into a fertilized mouse or rat egg; the DNA randomly integrate in the genome and results in a gain of function (new gene expression) or in endogenous gene overexpression.


  • Simple design, short development time for classical transgene; more complicated and longer for Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) modification.
  • No genetic background limitation in theory.
  • Multiple lines with different expression level can be obtained.


  • Random integration in the host genome results in unpredictable expression levels and can lead to gene inactivation by random integration in the genome.
  • Variable copy number integration.
  • This technology cannot be used to generate knock-out or knock-in models.

PHENOMIN expertise

  • Personalized genome engineering service to fit our customer needs.
  • Continuous R&D activity to improve our technics and success rate and propose our customers the best approach for their projects.
  • Implication in international consortia (near 20 different consortia) to benefit from the latest technics and scientific expertise.


For any pronuclear injection request please contact us