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Genotyping is the process of determining differences in the genetic make-up (genotype) of an individual by examining the individual's DNA sequence. This step is crucial in the model generation process as it allows to select animals carrying the good combination of alleles for phenotyping analyses. We offer customized genotyping services for any mutation including knock-out, knock-in, transgenic or any other genetically modified rodent model. Different tissues can be used for genotype identification, including tail biopsies, ear tags, embryonic yolk sac and even non-invasive biopsies (hair, feces, buccal, swab...)
Our fully automated service allows a high-throughput process, i.e treatment of thousands of samples per week.
PHENOMIN-ICS went back to PCR genotyping basics to provide recommendations for reliable, rapid, cost effective, robust and adaptable to high-throughput genotyping protocol for any type of mutation. As usefull examples to ensure reproducible and easy PCR genotyping for zootechny process, please have a look to the recommendations related to the tissues sampling.
Bacteria and hosts are closely interacting and may influence each other. Especially in the gut, bacteria benefit the host in many ways. Besides breaking down food compounds and synthesizing vitamins and other nutrients, they play an important role in the development and training of the immune system, they provide colonization resistance, protect against epithelial injury, and promote angiogenesis and fat storage. They are also able to modulate bone-mass density, modify the nervous system and metabolize therapeutics into active compounds (Laukens et al., 2016).
Gut microbiota have also been reported in diseases: allergy and asthma (Fujimura et Lynch, 2015), autoimmunity (Shamriz et al., 2016), aging (Bischoff, 2016), brain function and behavior (Mu et al., 2016), cancer (Roy et Trinchieri, 2017), epigenomic regulation (Woo et Alenghat, 2017), infectious diseases and pathogen protection (Ubeda et al., 2017), obesity and metabolic diseases (Zmora et al., 2017), vaccine response (Praharaj et al., 2015)… However, the real impact of gut microbiota on diseases is still poorly evaluated.
As the scientific community is currently looking for achieving better in vivo animal model reproducibility, the metagenome is explored to dissect its influence on experimental results and reproducibility on in vivo models.
To define, follow the gut microbiota profile and evaluate its impact on phenotype, PHENOMIN has set up high throughput 16S metagenomic analysis using 16S V3-V4 variable region sequencing. We have developed advanced microbial community analyses to provide more relevant interpretations.
Bacterial 16S RNA gene
Regions variable between species are in dark blue