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Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the primary cause of mortality over the world. Major CVD are caused by atherosclerotic plaques, valve dysfunctions, cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia, and heart infections. We provide you with several tests to evaluate functional or anatomical abnormalities related to heart and vessels.

New tests

Multiderivational ECG Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH)

Suggested primary analysis

See our Anatomopathology dedicated page to explore all our available tests.

Purpose

The measurement of various blood metabolites, ions, and enzymes provides a primary screen for  function of major metabolic organs such as kidney, liver, gastrointestinal tract, as well as for lipid and glucose homeostasis. 

A panel of parameters is proposed, including:

  • Electrolytes and ions: Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Chloride (Cl), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Phosphate (PO4), iron (Fe), and bicarbonate (CO2).
  • Enzymatic activities: Alpha-amylase, aspartate amino transaminase (AST), alanine amino transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), lipase, creatine kinase (CK).
  • Metabolites: glucose, urea, creatinine, uric acid, total proteins, albumin, total bilirubin, triglycerides, free fatty acids, glycerol, total, HDL and LDL cholesterol, fructosamine, ketone bodies (B-HBA), transferrin, ferritin.

Equipment

These tests are performed with an AU-480 automated laboratory work station (Beckman Coulter France SAS, Villepinte, France).

Strain background references

Champy MF, Selloum M, Zeitler V, Caradec C, Jung B, Rousseau S, Pouilly L, Sorg T, Auwerx J. Genetic background determines metabolic phenotypes in the mouse. Mamm Genome. 2008 May;19(5):318-31. Epub 2008 Apr 5.

Purpose

Determination of prothrombine time, activated partial thromboplastin time and fibrinogen activity.

Equipment

ST4 semi automated coagulometer (Diagnostiqua Stago, Gennevilliers, France).

coagulation_equipment.png

Recommendations

It is recommended to collect blood by intra-cardiac puncture.

Cardiac

Purpose

Echocardiography is considered the first-line diagnostic test, from which subsequent imaging or interventions can be recommended.

The Vevo 2100 High-Frequency Ultrasound Systems have been developed specifically for use in small animal imaging and are ideally suited for mouse or rat echocardiography. With center operating frequencies ranging from 15MHz to 50MHz one imaging system can be used to assess cardiac function from embryo to adult in many commonly used small animal models. 

Strain background references

echocardiography_1.png echocardiography_2.png

echocardiography_3.png echocardiography_4.png

Equipment

Vevo imaging System (VISUALSONICS, Amsterdam, The Netherlands).

Recommendations

Number of animals: 7-9 mice/gender/genotype

Purpose

Evaluation of the electrical activity of the heart in anesthetized mice.

Purpose

Experimental reproduction of a cardiac infarction by reversible suturing.

Purpose

Implantation of a cannula probe to directly measure arterial of ventricular blood pressure in an anesthetized mouse.

Purpose

Pathological model resulting in average 10% increase in blood pressure but with major fibrosis and left ventricle thickening.

Purpose

We perform multi-derivation ECG heart in anesthetized mice with 8 probes to generate information about how the electrical activity propagates in 3 dimensions and to determine the electrical axis of the heart.  Axis deviations may result from cardiac injury or from a congenital defect. 

Sample results

sample results-ECG multiderivation.png

Electrical heart axis difference and specific electrical transmission issues are determined by multiderivational ECG.  Multiderivational ECG profiles of a wild-type mouse (left) and mutant mouse (right).  Deviated profiles in the mutant animal suggest a left-heart contraction deficiency as well as rotation of the electrical axis to 90-120⁰ from the normal 30-60⁰. 

Strain background reference

Any strain background can be used

Equipment

Electrocardiograph ISO DAM8 amplifier (World Precision Instruments, Sarasota, USA) with ECG AUTO v3.3.5.5 (Emka technologies, USA) and 8 lead positions probes.

recommendations:

We recommend 6 mice per group minimum in same anaesthesia conditions and probes positions

Purpose

Regular forced exercise can create a situation of cardiac hypertrophy. We utilize a swimming regimen in a warm pool over several weeks to induce cardiac hypertrophy.

Purpose

Telemetry blood pressure and heart rate: continuous recording of the systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure and heart rate in conscious mice.

Telemetry EKG: continuous recording of electrocardiogram in conscious mice.

Strain background references

telemetry_bp_1.png telemetry_bp_2.png

Equipment

24 channels Data Sciences International acquisition system with 24 RPC-1 telemetric probe

acquisition_system_DSI_1.png

The radio-telemetry system consists in implants and receiver: telemetry implants for small animals transmit data to receiver via AM radio waves.

The receiver is the RPC-1 receiver - DSI

-The Data Exchange Matrix - DSI
-The Computer (Dell) - DSI
-The Data Acquisition and Analysis System (Dataquest) - DSI

telemetry_receiver.png

Telemetry blood pressure and heart rate

The implantable telemetry, PA-C10 Device (transmitter), for blood pressure and heart rate - DSI

telemetrie_blood_pressure_equipement_1.png

telemetrie_blood_pressure_equipement_2.png

Telemetry EKG

The implantable telemetry devices (transmitters) – DSI ETA-F20 Device for Electrocardiogram

telemetrie_EKG_equipement_1.png

Recommendations

Number of animals: 8-10 mice/gender/genotype

Optimal body weight: 30g

Models

Use of hypoxia chambers to induce Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) for three of four weeks demonstrates significant resemblance to WHO group III categorized PAH, which includes COPD.  

Purpose

Exposure to chronic hypoxia provides a model of COPD and other PAH disorders in mice. For C57BL/6 mice maintained for 21 days at 0% we see highly significant increases in haematocrit, cardiomyocyte surface area, and right ventricular systolic pressure mimicking human PAH. 

Sample test results

PAH-sample-data.png

Exposure of C57BL/6N mice to 10% O2 for extended periods resulted in (A) weight loss; (B) increased hematocrit; (C) increase right-ventricular systolic pressure (RSVP); and (D) increased cardiomyocyte surface area.  

Equipment

  • Custom fabricated hypoxia chambers with feedback sensors.
  • Invasive blood pressure mouse probe throught the implantable telemetry, PA-C10 Device (transmitter), for blood pressure and heart rate - DSI (St. Paul,  U.S.A.) 

Open in full size

  • Advia complete blood counts Advia 120 (Siemens AG, Erlangen, Germany)

Vascular

Purpose

Pathological model resulting in average 37% increase in blood pressure with small decrease of myocardial relaxation.

Purpose

Pathological model resulting in average 18% increase in blood pressure with thinkening of arteries and left ventricle.

Purpose

Pathological model resulting in average 17% increase in blood pressure and some left ventricular hypertrophy.

Purpose

Determination of systolic blood pressure and heart rate in conscious mice by tail-cuff method.

Strain background reference

ni_blood_pressure.png

Equipment

Two apparatus of BP-2000 seriesII 6 channels (Visitech Systems, Apex, North Carolina, USA)

Recommendations

Number of animals: 9 mice/gender/genotype . Maximum age : 8 weeks

Purpose

Scan arteries and veins with ultrasound to :

  • Investigate the progression of disease processes. Ultrasound can provide data on anatomical changes, such as plaque formation, plaque size and composition as well as blood velocity
  • Determine the flow volume in a particular artery
  • Determine physical changes in artery walls
  • Determination of intravascular thrombus location.
  • Determine the health and nature of tissues supplied by that artery

Equipment:

The Vevo 2100 High-Frequency Ultrasound System from Vevo Imaging Systems (VISUALSONICS, Amsterdam, The Netherlands).

Recommendations

Number of animals: 7 mice/gender/genotype/experimental group

Suggested secondary analysis

Purpose

Identification of specific bacterial loads present in the feces of mice by virtue of quantitative ribosomal 16S DNA sequencing.

For more details, please see our Microbia profiling dedicated section.

See our Gene expression analysis dedicated page to explore our different related tests.

Food challenge

Purpose

With several months notice, we can procure and provide a variety of different restriction diets for nutritional analyses in conjuction with our other analyses.

Purpose

We can procure and provide a high sodium diet for vascular, renal, and cardiac challenges. 

Models and Challenges

Purpose

Pathological model resulting in average 37% increase in blood pressure with small decrease of myocardial relaxation.

Purpose

The Apoe targeted mutation mice (Apoe -/-) are unable to produce apolipoprotein E which is essential for the transport and metabolism of lipids. These mice have a markedly altered plasma lipid profile compared to normal mice, and rapidly develop atherosclerotic lesions. A diet high in fat and cholesterol increases the incidence of atherosclerosis in these mice and this model is a useful model especially for pharmacological studies.

Mice deficient in low density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr) have an elevated serum cholesterol level and display very high levels when fed a high fat diet. This model is also commonly used for hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis research.

Tests proposed:

Purpose

Pathological model resulting in average 18% increase in blood pressure with thinkening of arteries and left ventricle.

Purpose

Experimental reproduction of a cardiac infarction by reversible suturing.

Purpose

Pathological model resulting in average 10% increase in blood pressure but with major fibrosis and left ventricle thickening.

Purpose

Pathological model resulting in average 17% increase in blood pressure and some left ventricular hypertrophy.

Use of hypoxia chambers to induce Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) for three of four weeks demonstrates significant resemblance to WHO group III categorized PAH, which includes COPD.  

Purpose

Exposure to chronic hypoxia provides a model of COPD and other PAH disorders in mice. For C57BL/6 mice maintained for 21 days at 0% we see highly significant increases in haematocrit, cardiomyocyte surface area, and right ventricular systolic pressure mimicking human PAH. 

Sample test results

PAH-sample-data.png

Exposure of C57BL/6N mice to 10% O2 for extended periods resulted in (A) weight loss; (B) increased hematocrit; (C) increase right-ventricular systolic pressure (RSVP); and (D) increased cardiomyocyte surface area.  

Equipment

  • Custom fabricated hypoxia chambers with feedback sensors.
  • Invasive blood pressure mouse probe throught the implantable telemetry, PA-C10 Device (transmitter), for blood pressure and heart rate - DSI (St. Paul,  U.S.A.) 

Open in full size

  • Advia complete blood counts Advia 120 (Siemens AG, Erlangen, Germany)

Purpose

With several months notice, we can procure and provide a variety of different restriction diets for nutritional analyses in conjuction with our other analyses.

Purpose

We can procure and provide a high sodium diet for vascular, renal, and cardiac challenges. 

Purpose

Regular forced exercise can create a situation of cardiac hypertrophy. We utilize a swimming regimen in a warm pool over several weeks to induce cardiac hypertrophy.