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Suggested primary analysis

See our Anatomopathology dedicated page to explore all our available tests.

Purpose

Gait analysis evaluates proprioceptive sensitivity but also assesses the integrity of motor coordination and vestibular function. Animals require an accurate paw placement to succeed in this test. The gait is altered in in different pathologies including ataxia or neuropathic pain.

Sample test results:

Behavior_Automated gait_stride freq graph

Behavior_Automated gait_stride length graph

Behavior_Automated gait_stride time graph

Behavior_Automated gait_swing time graph

Strain background references:

Hansen and Pulst, 2013.

Equipment

Digigait™ (Mouse Specifics, Inc.) transparent treadmill instrumentation.

Recommendations

10 mice per group are recommended for reliabe data analysis.

Purpose

The balance beam test or gait analysis is relatively specific for evaluation of proprioceptive sensitivity. However, the performance in this test also depends on the integrity of motor coordination and vestibular function. 

Equipment

An elevated beam of standardized diameter and length.

Recommendations

10 mice per group are recommended for reliable data analysis.

Purpose

Electromyographic recording allows neurophysiological measurement of sensory-motor function. In situations of demyelination and/or axonal degeneration, the compound muscle action potential (CMAP), latency of motor response and sensitive nerve conduction velocity (SNCV) are affected. 

Sample test results

Behavior_Electromyography_SNCV graph

Behavior_Electromyography_CMAP graph

Equipment

Key Point electromyograph (EMG) apparatus (Medtronic, Boulogne-Billancourt, France). The body temperature is maintained at 37 °C with a homeostatic blanket (Harvard, LES ULIS, France). 

Recommendations

10 mice per group are recommended for reliable data analysis.

Purpose

This test measures the muscular muscle strength using an isometric dynamometer connected to a grid. Once the animal is holding the grid with its forepaws it is slowly moved backwards until it releases it. The dynamometer records the maximal force exerted.

Sample test results

Behavior_Grip strength graph

Equipment

2 grip strength apparati (BIOSEB, Vitrolles, France).

Recommendations

10 mice per group are recommended for reliable data analysis.

Purpose

Muscle contractility and muscle force can be evaluated in situ on limb muscle using an isolated muscle test system (Aurora Scientific). This procedure is done on anesthetized mice, animals are sacrificed at the end of the measurement.

Purpose

A proprioceptive test similar to the balance beam under more challenging condition requiring vertical as well as lateral movement. This test also depends on the integrity of motor coordination and vestibular function.

Purpose

The one-meter swim test is used to evaluate swimming ability of mice. 

Equipment

A straight swim tank (100 cm long, 6 cm wide, 27.3 cm high) made of translucent PVC and filled at 21 cm depth with water. A visible platform is placed opposite to the starting point, allowing to the animal to escape from water.

Recommendations

10 mice per group are recommended for reliable data analysis.

Purpose

This test measures the ability of an animal to maintain balance on a rotating rod. This task requires a variety of proprioceptive, vestibular and fine-tuned motor abilities.

Sample test results

Behavior_Rotarod graph

Equipment

2 rotarod apparati (BIOSEB, Vitrolles, France)

Recommendations

10 mice per group are recommended for reliable data analysis.

Purpose

The string test measures the time required for a forelimb-hanging mouse to gain hindlimb traction. Defects in latency time reflect potential alteration in traction force, drug-induced sedation, or deficient coordination (Meziane et al. 1996).

Sample test results

Behavior_String graph

Equipment

 Customized equipment: a wire stretched horizontally 40 cm above a table.

Behavior_String Equipment picture

Recommendations

10 mice per group are recommended for reliable data analysis.

X-Ray imaging

Purpose


Bone architecture may be analysed by both in vivo and in situ using Micron-scale X-ray Computed Tomography (also called µCT). It is particularly helpful for bone dynamics analysis. This augments our current capacities of skeletal examinations by TRAP histological stain, X-ray, DEXA scanning, quantitative NMR, and adapted clinical chemistry analysis.

Equipment

µCT (PerkinElmer Quantum FX, Waltham, Massachusetts)

Imaging_X ray Bone dynamics MicroCT equipment

Sample Data

  • In vivo longitudinal and ex vivo studies 
  • Fast and high quality, ready to publish data

Imaging_Bone analysis microCT 2017-2

Representative 3D volumes illustrating trabecular microarchitecture in the distal femur (left) and caudal vertebra (right) of Sham-operated and Ovarectomized (OVX) mice, 9 weeks after surgery. Similar volumes are used for morphometric quantification.

Imaging_X ray Bone dynamics MicroCT_Longitudinal change in trabecular bone graphs

Example of longitudinal changes in trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and trabecular number (Tb.N) for Sham and OVX groups.

 

Imaging_Bone dynamics microCT Tibia

Representative 3D volumes illustrating cortical bone in the tibia of Sham-operated and Ovarectomized OVX mice, 9 weeks after surgery. The illustrations were generated by Alexandru Parlog (PHENOMIN-ICS).

Imaging_X ray Bone dynamics MicroCT_Longitudinal change in cortical bone and thickness graphs

Example of longitudinal changes in cortical bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and cortical thickness (Cr.Th) for Sham-operated and Ovarectomized OVX groups.

Recommendations

Contact us for help in designing your experiments on bone dynamics.

Purpose

The X-Ray system gives very precise images of the skeletton. In DXA mode it automatically calculates BMD, BMC, and lean and fat mass percentages.

Strain background references

Champy MF, Selloum M, Zeitler V, Caradec C, Jung B, Rousseau S, Pouilly L, Sorg T, Auwerx J. 
Genetic background determines metabolic phenotypes in the mouse. 
Mamm Genome. 2008 May;19(5):318-31. Epub 2008 Apr 5.

Equipment 

Imaging_Bone mineral density equipment DEXA

pDEXA Sabre (Norland)

Sample data

Imaging_Bone mineral density image DEXA

Recommendations

  • For performance in conjunction with X-ray analysis.
  • 8 mice per group are recommended for reliable data analysis.

CT is a technique that relies on differential levels of X-ray attenuation by tissues within the body to produce images reflecting anatomy.

Purpose

The assay is developed to provide  high resolution images of the whole mouse skeleton. Analysis of the digital X-ray pictures is generally performed with respect to bones from the head (zygomatic bone, maxilla, mandibles), teeth, scapulae, clavicle, ribs (number, shape, fusion), pelvis, vertebrae (numbers, shape and potential fusion of cervical, thoracic, lumbar, pelvic and caudal ones), limb bones (humerus, radius, ulna, femur, tibia), joints, digits and syndactylism.

Equipment and sample data

X-Ray MX-20 Specimen (Faxitron, Tucson, Arizona, USA)

Imaging_X-ray equipment

Sample data

Imaging_X-ray image

Recommendations

At least 5 mice per group are required for appropriated analysis.

Imaging_X-ray graph

Suggested secondary analysis

Purpose

Body composition for fat, lean and free body fluid is evaluated on conscious mice by quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance on Minispec analyzer.

Metabo_Body composition by qNMR graph

Body composition analysis of male mice from different common laboratory strains after provision of chow diet (CD) or 10 weeks provision of high-fat diet (HFD), including complete body weight, fat tissue content, and lean tissue content.  Dramatic increases in fat tissue is seen upon HFD-diet treatment for most strains excepting BALB/c, consistent with what has previously been reported. 

Equipment

Metabo_Body composition Equipement picture

Body composition is evaluated by Quantitative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (qNMR) using Minispec+ analyzer (Bruker BioSpin S.A.S., Wissembourg, France)

See our Gene expression analysis dedicated page to explore our different related tests.

Purpose

The High-Resolution Digital Radiography system (Ultrafocus by Faxitron) gives very precise images of the skeletton. Analysis of the digital X-ray pictures is generally performed with respect to bones from the head (zygomatic bone, maxilla, mandibles), teeth, scapulae, clavicle, ribs (number, shape, fusion), pelvis, vertebrae (numbers, shape and potential fusion of cervical, thoracic, lumbar, pelvic and caudal ones), limb bones (humerus, radius, ulna, femur, tibia), joints, digits and syndactylism.

In dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry mode (DXA), the system measures bone mineral density (BMD) and also determine lean and fat mass percentages.

Metabo_UltrafocusDXA graph.jpg

Comparison of wild-type C57BL/6N (WT) and Ttc39a deletion (Mutant) mice for noted body composition parameters by non-invasive Ultrafocus DXA imaging.  *, p<0.05; **, p<0.01.

Food challenge

Purpose

With several months notice, we can procure and provide a variety of different restriction diets for nutritional analyses in conjuction with our other analyses.

Models and Challenges

Purpose

With several months notice, we can procure and provide a variety of different restriction diets for nutritional analyses in conjuction with our other analyses.